Narration in films

When discussing narration, we always consider who the author is and how he or she chooses to tell the story. As in literature, films have an implied author. However, unlike in literature, the implied author in films is not solely the filmmaker but also the producers, directors, writers and even the actors themselves, as they are also responsible for creating the story in the film as a whole.

Some films feature voice-over narration, where an off-screen narrator, who could also be a character in the story provides an interpretation of the events unfolding on the screen. Voice-over narrators are common…


How art is used to tell the story of parenthood between a father with a disability and his daughter.

I Am Sam is the story of a father’s fight to win custody of his daughter. Sam (played by Sean Penn) has an intellectual disability, but that doesn’t stop him from being everything his loving daughter, Lucy (played by Dakota Fanning) needs. The film mainly explores the familial love and parenthood, particularly what it takes to be a “good” parent. A major element in the film is art. …


We’ve picked our favourite episodes from Netflix’s animated anthology, diving deep into the story’s themes and morals.

Netflix’s hit sci-fi animated anthology series was followed by second volume released earlier in May. Just like the the first season, each episode dives into the various themes, philosophies and “what if?” theories surrounding love, death and technological advancements. After carefully, digesting all 8 episodes, we’ve picked our top favourites you certainly can’t miss.

1. Pop Squad


Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter… and Spring as a Buddhist Film

Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter… and Spring is set in a monastery floating on a remote lake surrounded by mountains and vegetation. The use of long shots and the bird’s eye view/God’s eye view amplifies its isolation. The mixed use of closed framing, vibrant natural colours and the peaceful music attribute to the calmness and simplicity of the place, and these visual and auditory imagery presents a tranquil and hypnotic vision of natural life. This type of distant shots that frames everyday actions can illustrate the relation between characters and the environment and can also stress the pure visual awe and…


1. Donna Sheridan-Carmichael

Film: Mamma Mia! (2008)
Portrayed by: Merryl Streep

Mamma mia! Isn’t Donna the most hardworking and devoted mother in the entire island of Calacary? She manages a hotel on the verge of breaking down while raising a beautiful daughter all on her own. Her resilience, and dedication is inspiring, proving that she doesn’t need a man to get her through in life. All Sophie needs is her mother by her side.


Pre-Production/Ongoing

Directors and Their Collaborators

Director Alfred Hitchcock (left) and Composer Bernard Herrmann (right)

Besides the actors, the directors are often the most recognized member of the film-making team. You can often spot their names on the title sequence or the opening credits with the labels “A film by…” or “A …film”, thereby giving them a symbolic ownership over the film. Apart from creative directing, a director’s key skill is collaboration.

To ensure that they capture top-quality footage and realise their vision for the film, they have to communicate and work with the other essential creative members of the film-making crew, such as screenwriters, editors, actors to name a few. In fact, all of…


Film cuts or cinematic cuts are a quintessential part of film editing in the post-production process. They are used in transitioning from one scene to another and is an integral part in the narrative structure of a film. Let’s take a look at the different cuts used in today’s films.

1. The Content Cut

Definition: Cut to a new shot within a scene only to add new information or carry the story forward. One can see it as a progression of the narrative
Example(s):
Shot 1: Wide shot of the character speaking
Shot 2: Over-the-shoulder shot of the character speaking
Shot 3: Close-up shot of the character speaking
Possible…


⚠️Warning — Spoilers Ahead!

Compared to the recent animated films Pixar has released, Soul appeals to an older demographic with mature themes like the importance of living and tackling the profound question of the meaning of life.

How the Narrative Structure contributes to the theme — Want vs. Need

Soul utilizes a “Want vs. Need” structure wherein the conflict lies in the internal struggle of what the protagonist wants and what he actually needs.


How do filmmakers use different lighting techniques to set the scene?

Lighting is a quintessential part of filmmaking in visually setting the mood and atmosphere of a film, which oftentimes define the genre of the film. It’s a powerful tool that can direct the audience’s eye to a part of a scene, a specific actor or prop and even reflect the emotions and personality of a character.

Lost in Translation (2003)

Three-point lighting

The three-point lighting system, developed in the studio era in Hollywood, is the basic and most commonly-used lighting technique in films today. It consists of three light sources:


How the Role and Characterization of Men Contribute to Thelma and Louise as a Feminist Film

Being one of the most popular portrayals of feminism in the film industry, Thelma and Louise was released in 1991, when the transition between the second-wave and third-wave feminism took place. Even so, the film may have produced parallels within characters that contrasts each other and raise the controversy of whether the film is feminist or anti-feminist.

Men as the Violent Figure

Characterizing men as violent figures can amplify the physical fragility of women. For example, Darryl is characterized as a dominating man, as…

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